Relative to whites, blacks and Hispanics seem to have very different interactions with law enforcement--interactions that are consistent with, though definitely not proof of, some form of discrimination. Including myriad controls designed to account for civilian demographics, encounter characteristics, civilian behavior, eventual outcomes of interaction and year reduces, but cannot eliminate, racial differences in non-lethal use of force in either of the datasets analyzed.
Strikingly, both the black and Hispanic coefficients are statistically similar across [...] income levels--suggesting that higher income minorities do not price themselves out of police use of force.
the propensity to violence exhibited by American police
I've never been at the States but I lived a few years in South America and they are an incredible violent society judging by European standards. I see no reason for their Northern neighbors to be different.
I hear that Canada seems to be much more European like. Probably virtues of speaking French.
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